Lab2 Composition

Metabolic pathways: A summary of cellular respiration and fermentation Chapter 6

Cell respiration, the natural photosynthesis occur in eukaryotic organelles (mitochondria, chloroplasts)

CELLULAR RESPIRATION

GLUCOSE

1 2 GLYCOLYSIS you

PYRUVATE OXIDATION2

KREBS CIRCUIT

3 a couple of

ELECTRON TRANSPORTATION 4 CYCLE 2

NET ATP PRODUCED = 36

Nelson, 2003

Redox Reactions

• Reduction-oxidation reactions

– Transfer electrons from subscriber to acceptor atoms

• Donor can be oxidized since it releases electrons

• Acceptor is lowered as it welcomes electrons

Cell Respiration Group of chemical reactions and electron exchanges that convert glucose in ATP C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 & 6H2O + ATP & heat Aerobic respiration – involving o2 Anaerobic respiration – simply no oxygen

Cell Respiration Series of chemical reactions and electron exchanges that convert glucose into ATP

Fig 6. your five

Can transfer more of the energy stored in glucose into ATP if it is done in a series of methods instead of a single step.

REDOX Reactions Damage and addition (transfer) of electrons REDOX RED sama dengan reduction (reaction involving getting electrons) OX = oxidation process (reaction involving losing electrons) " LEO the lion says GER” LEO = lose bad particals, oxidized KOMMER ATT GE = gain electrons, decreased IN TEXTBOOK acronym– oxidation is loss, reduction is definitely gain (OILRIG)

See your level 12 chemistry notes intended for review.

REDOX Reactions

Electrons travel with protons. Therefore , addition or perhaps removal of hydrogen associated with REDOX reactions. Turns into oxidized

C6H12O6 + 6O2 пѓ 6CO2 & 6H2O + ATP & heat

Turns into reduced

Electron Carrier in cellular respiration

NAD+ Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide " Collects” or " accepts” bad particals from the stepwise breakdown (series of chemical substance reactions) of glucose Electrons " collected” by NAD+ used in the production of ATP. NAD+ & 2e- & 2H+ пѓ NADH & H+

Oxidized form

Lowered form

Electron Carrier in cellular respiration

FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide FAD +

Oxidized form

2e- & 2H+ пѓ FADH2

Decreased form

FADH2 used in electron transport chain to produce ATP

Cellular Respiration

Glycolysis

Pyruvate oxidation Citric acid circuit or Kreb's cycle Electron transport chain and chemiosmosis

KNOW Mitochondrion Anatomy

Raven et 's., (2008) Biology 8th release. McGraw Mountain.

Cristae (inner membrane), intermembrane, and matrix involved in cellular respiration.

Cellular Respiration – per you glucose

Part

Glycolysis I actually (energy needed) Glycolysis 2 (ATP made) Pyruvate Oxidation process Citric Acid Cycle Electron Transport Cycle (ETC) Chemiosmosis

Where Occurs

Cytoplasm Cytoplasm Mito. matrix Mito. matrix Mito.

# ATP # NADH # NADH # FADH 2 used created used produced

#FADH # ATP made 2 used

2 2 2 six 10

a couple of 10 12 2

4

2 2

2 32

2 37

Same as ETC

TOTALS

37 ATP produced – two ATP used = net yield of 36 ATP per 1 glucose

CELL PHONE RESPIRATION

SUGAR

1 a couple of

GLYCOLYSIS

one particular

PYRUVATE OXIDATION 2

KREBS CYCLE

a few 2

ELECTRON TRANSPORT some CHAIN two

NET ATP PRODUCED = 36

Nelson, 2003

Glycolysis

glucose + 2 ADP + two Pi + 2 NAD+ в†’ 2 pyruvate + 2 NADH + 2 H++ two ATP

Net ATP?

Substrate-level phosphorylation

E. g., via phosphoglycerate kinase enzyme

Glycolysis

The following photo slides outline the series of molecular changes that occur during glycolysis as well as the enzymes which might be involved. Your are NOT anticipated to memorize just about every molecule, chemical, and the order in which they occur.

Recognize that through a series of chemical reactions, concerning enzymes, glucose is modified into different 6 co2 molecules and then 3 carbon dioxide molecules, causing two pyruvate (3 carbon) molecules. Know the dimensions of the significance and placement (where occurs approx during glycolysis) of sugar, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate, and pyruvate. Be able to recognize what has took place from one molecule to the next.

Glycolysis (ATP put in phase)

Glycolysis (ATP used phase)

Glycolysis (ATP spent phase)...

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