Theories of Crime


This thesis is exploring the relatively new criminal trends of computer crime, or as it is recognized termed, cracking. The foundation for the assessment is based on how well classic psychological theories of criminal offenses and deviance explain the brand new behaviour. Dominant theories in each of the categories of psychoanalytic, learning and control are reviewed. The thesis concludes that for the most part, classic psychological ideas are deficient with regard to explaining criminal laptop behaviour. It is argued that differential association and cultural learning theory may be partly effective in explaining the original involvement and continuation of criminal computer system behaviour.

Psychological Hypotheses of Criminal offenses and " Hacking”

Today's society with the midst of the technological trend. With advances in computers and telecommunications most businesses and lots of individuals have grown to be dependent on personal computers and systems to carry out everyday activities (Howard, 1997; Sterling, 1992). Howard (1997) mentioned that by 1996, 13 million website hosts systems had been accessing the web. It has been believed that by the year the year 2003, the number could have risen to more than 200 million (Denning, 1998). The rush to embrace the brand new technology has additionally introduced a brand new category of lawbreaker activity and behaviour, commonly known as hacking1 (Goodell, 1996; Littman, 1995). Hacking is a lawbreaker activity that relies on the dependence of computers and networks, such as Internet (Hutchison, 1997, Schnell und einfach, 1996; Stoll, 1985). Those engaged in cracking activities have already been termed cyber criminals (Howard, 1997; Taylor, 1998). The term hacker has had a large number of connotations over time. It was originally connected with outstanding and radical coders in the computer system science fields (usually by Berkley, Stanford or MIT) (Chandler, 1996). Today that commonly refers to an individual engaged in a form of legal behaviour, hacking. Hacking could be formally defined as either a successful or defeated attempt to gain unauthorized use or unauthorized access to your computer system (Howard, 1997).

Society is now looking to come to grips with this new criminal activity that knows not any geographical limitations and blurs the notion of criminal legislation (Hafner & Markoff 1995; Hutchison, 1997). Behavioural research has been remiss in its research into the tendency of cracking and as such there has been little or no scientific research in the areas of emotional profiles and causes of the behaviour (Karnow et al., 1994).

In order to be familiar with criminal conduct of cyber criminals, it is necessary to examine the traditional psychological theories of criminal conduct and how they are often applied to develop an understanding of hacking. Key Psychological Theories of Crime

The major emotional theories of crime can be categorized in to the following areas; psychoanalytic theory learning theory, and control theory (Blackburn, 1993; Feldman, 1993; Hollin, 1989). Dominant theories within just each of these categories will be quickly reviewed. Difficulties psychological hypotheses of criminal offense have been inspired to some extent by simply other areas (i. e., criminology, sociology, & biology) (Feldman, 1993; Hollin, 1989). Criminology might have had the biggest effect on the development of behavioural ideas of crime (Bartol, 1991; Hollin, 1989). As such it is important to quickly review the 2 predominant disciplines in criminology, classical, and positivist theory. (Clinnar & Quinney, 1986; Feldman, 1993; Hollin, 1989).

The classical theorists hold central the style that guy is capable of free will (Hollin, 1989). Crime can be described in terms of alternatives between criminal behaviour (if the opportunity arose) or noncriminal behaviour. If the rewards for any criminal take action are higher than the retribution, the possibility of felony behaviour boosts (Hollin, 1989).

The positivist theorists believe that...

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